Sale on Canvas Prints! Use code ABCXYZ at checkout for a special discount!


Displaying: 1 - 10 of 11


Show All



2 Next

Color theory

November 7th, 2020

Color theory

Color abstractions
The foundations of pre-20th-century color theory were built around "pure" or ideal colors, characterized by different sensory experiences rather than attributes of the physical world. This has led to a number of inaccuracies in traditional color theory principles that are not always remedied in modern formulations.

Another issue has been the tendency to describe color effects holistically or categorically, for example as a contrast between "yellow" and "blue" conceived as generic colors, when most color effects are due to contrasts on three relative attributes which define all colors:
1- Value (light vs. dark, or white vs. black),
2- Chroma [saturation, purity, strength, intensity] (intense vs. dull), and
3- Hue (e.g. the name of the color family: red, yellow, green, cyan, blue, magenta).

The visual impact of "yellow" vs. "blue" hues in visual design depends on the relative lightness and saturation of the hues.

These confusions are partly historical and arose in scientific uncertainty about the color perception that was not resolved until the late 19th-century when the artistic notions were already entrenched. They also arise from the attempt to describe the highly contextual and flexible behavior of color perception in terms of abstract color sensations that can be generated equivalently by any visual media.

Many historical "color theorists" have assumed that three "pure" primary colors can mix all possible colors, and any failure of specific paints or inks to match this ideal performance is due to the impurity or imperfection of the colorants. In reality, only imaginary "primary colors" used in colorimetry can "mix" or quantify all visible (perceptually possible) colors; but to do this, these imaginary primaries are defined as lying outside the range of visible colors; i.e., they cannot be seen. Any three real "primary" colors of light, paint or ink can mix only a limited range of colors, called a gamut, which is always smaller (contains fewer colors) than the full range of colors humans can perceive.

Historical background

Color theory was originally formulated in terms of three "primary" or "primitive" colors—red, yellow and blue (RYB)—because these colors were believed capable of mixing all other colors.

The RYB primary colors became the foundation of 18th-century theories of color vision,[citation needed] as the fundamental sensory qualities that are blended in the perception of all physical colors, and conversely, in the physical mixture of pigments or dyes. These theories were enhanced by 18th-century investigations of a variety of purely psychological color effects, in particular the contrast between "complementary" or opposing hues that are produced by color afterimages and in the contrasting shadows in colored light. These ideas and many personal color observations were summarized in two founding documents in color theory: the Theory of Colours (1810) by the German poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, and The Law of Simultaneous Color Contrast (1839) by the French industrial chemist Michel Eugène Chevreul. Charles Hayter published A New Practical Treatise on the Three Primitive Colours Assumed as a Perfect System of Rudimentary Information (London 1826), in which he described how all colors could be obtained from just three.

Subsequently, German and English scientists established in the late 19th century that color perception is best described in terms of a different set of primary colors—red, green and blue-violet (RGB)—modeled through the additive mixture of three monochromatic lights. Subsequent research anchored these primary colors in the differing responses to light by three types of color receptors or cones in the retina (trichromacy). On this basis the quantitative description of the color mixture or colorimetry developed in the early 20th century, along with a series of increasingly sophisticated models of color space and color perception, such as the opponent process theory.

Across the same period, industrial chemistry radically expanded the color range of lightfast synthetic pigments, allowing for substantially improved saturation in color mixtures of dyes, paints, and inks. It also created the dyes and chemical processes necessary for color photography. As a result, three-color printing became aesthetically and economically feasible in mass printed media, and the artists' color theory was adapted to primary colors most effective in inks or photographic dyes: cyan, magenta, and yellow (CMY). (In printing, dark colors are supplemented by black ink, known as the CMYK system; in both printing and photography, white is provided by the color of the paper.) These CMY primary colors were reconciled with the RGB primaries, and subtractive color mixing with additive color mixing, by defining the CMY primaries as substances that absorbed only one of the retinal primary colors: cyan absorbs only red (−R+G+B), magenta only green (+R−G+B), and yellow only blue-violet (+R+G−B). It is important to add that the CMYK, or process, color printing is meant as an economical way of producing a wide range of colors for printing, but is deficient in reproducing certain colors, notably orange and slightly deficient in reproducing purples. A wider range of colors can be obtained with the addition of other colors to the printing process, such as in Pantone's Hexachrome printing ink system (six colors), among others.

For much of the 19th-century artistic color theory either lagged behind scientific understanding or was augmented by science books written for the lay public, in particular Modern Chromatics (1879) by the American physicist Ogden Rood, and early color atlases developed by Albert Munsell (Munsell Book of Color, 1915, see Munsell color system) and Wilhelm Ostwald (Color Atlas, 1919). Major advances were made in the early 20th century by artists teaching or associated with the German Bauhaus, in particular Wassily Kandinsky, Johannes Itten, Faber Birren and Josef Albers, whose writings mix speculation with an empirical or demonstration-based study of color design principles.

Traditional color theory
Complementary colors

For the mixing of colored light, Isaac Newton's color wheel is often used to describe complementary colors, which are colors that cancel each other's hue to produce an achromatic (white, gray or black) light mixture. Newton offered as a conjecture that colors exactly opposite one another on the hue circle cancel out each other's hue; this concept was demonstrated more thoroughly in the 19th century.

A key assumption in Newton's hue circle was that the "fiery" or maximum saturated hues are located on the outer circumference of the circle, while achromatic white is at the center. Then the saturation of the mixture of two spectral hues was predicted by the straight line between them; the mixture of three colors was predicted by the "center of gravity" or centroid of three triangle points, and so on.

According to traditional color theory based on subtractive primary colors and the RYB color model, yellow mixed with purple, orange mixed with blue, or red mixed with green produces an equivalent gray and are the painter's complementary colors. These contrasts form the basis of Chevreul's law of color contrast: colors that appear together will be altered as if mixed with the complementary color of the other color. A piece of yellow fabric placed on a blue background will appear tinted orange because orange is the complementary color to blue.

However, when complementary colors are chosen based on the definition by light mixture, they are not the same as the artists' primary colors. This discrepancy becomes important when color theory is applied across media. Digital color management uses a hue circle defined according to additive primary colors (the RGB color model), as the colors in a computer monitor are additive mixtures of light, not subtractive mixtures of paints.

One reason the artist's primary colors work at all is due to the imperfect pigments being used have sloped absorption curves, and change color with concentration. A pigment that is pure red at high concentrations can behave more like magenta at low concentrations. This allows it to make purples that would otherwise be impossible. Likewise, a blue that is ultramarine at high concentrations appears cyan at low concentrations, allowing it to be used to mix green. Chromium red pigments can appear orange, and then yellow, as the concentration is reduced. It is even possible to mix very low concentrations of the blue mentioned and the chromium red to get a greenish color. This works much better with oil colors than it does with watercolors and dyes.

The old primaries depend on sloped absorption curves and pigment leakages to work, while newer scientifically derived ones depend solely on controlling the amount of absorption in certain parts of the spectrum.

Another reason the correct primary colors were not used by early artists is they were not available as durable pigments. Modern methods in chemistry were needed to produce them.

Warm vs. cool colors

The distinction between "warm" and "cool" colors has been important since at least the late 18th century.[1] The difference (as traced by etymologies in the Oxford English Dictionary), seems related to the observed contrast in landscape light, between the "warm" colors associated with daylight or sunset, and the "cool" colors associated with a gray or overcast day. Warm colors are often said to be hues from red through yellow, browns, and tans included; cool colors are often said to be the hues from blue-green through blue violet, most grays included. There is a historical disagreement about the colors that anchor the polarity, but 19th-century sources put the peak contrast between red-orange and greenish-blue.

Color theory has described perceptual and psychological effects to this contrast. Warm colors are said to advance or appear more active in a painting, while cool colors tend to recede; used in interior design or fashion, warm colors are said to arouse or stimulate the viewer, while cool colors calm and relax. Most of these effects, to the extent they are real, can be attributed to the higher saturation and lighter value of warm pigments in contrast to cool pigments; brown is a dark, unsaturated warm color that few people think of as visually active or psychologically arousing.

The traditional warm/cool association of a color is reversed relative to the color temperature of a theoretical radiating black body; the hottest stars radiate blue (cool) light, and the coolest radiate red (warm) light.

Achromatic colors
Any color that lacks strong chromatic content is said to be unsaturated, achromatic, near-neutral, or neutral. Near neutrals include browns, tans, pastels, and darker colors. Near neutrals can be of any hue or lightness. Pure achromatic, or neutral colors include black, white and all grays.

Near neutrals are obtained by mixing pure colors with white, black or grey, or by mixing two complementary colors. In color theory, neutral colors are easily modified by adjacent more saturated colors and they appear to take on the hue complementary to the saturated color; e.g., next to a bright red couch, a gray wall will appear distinctly greenish.

Black and white have long been known to combine "well" with almost any other colors; black decreases the apparent saturation or brightness of colors paired with it and white shows off all hues to equal effect.

Tints and shades
When mixing colored light (additive color models), the achromatic mixture of spectrally balanced red, green, and blue (RGB) is always white, not gray or black. When we mix colorants, such as the pigments in paint mixtures, a color is produced which is always darker and lower in chroma, or saturation, than the parent colors. This moves the mixed color toward a neutral color—a gray or near-black. Lights are made brighter or dimmer by adjusting their brightness, or energy level; in painting, lightness is adjusted through mixture with white, black, or a color's complement.

It is common among some painters to darken a paint color by adding black paint—producing colors called shades—or lighten a color by adding white—producing colors called tints. However, it is not always the best way for representational painting, as an unfortunate result is for colors to also shift in hue. For instance, darkening a color by adding black can cause colors such as yellows, reds, and oranges, to shift toward the greenish or bluish part of the spectrum. Lightening a color by adding white can cause a shift towards blue when mixed with reds and oranges. Another practice when darkening a color is to use its opposite, or complementary, color (e.g. purplish-red added to yellowish-green) in order to neutralize it without a shift in hue, and darken it if the additive color is darker than the parent color. When lightening a color this hue shift can be corrected with the addition of a small amount of an adjacent color to bring the hue of the mixture back in line with the parent color (e.g. adding a small amount of orange to a mixture of red and white will correct the tendency of this mixture to shift slightly towards the blue end of the spectrum).

Split primary colors
In painting and other visual arts, two-dimensional color wheels or three-dimensional color solids are used as tools to teach beginners the essential relationships between colors. The organization of colors in a particular color model depends on the purpose of that model: some models show relationships based on human color perception, whereas others are based on the color mixing properties of a particular medium such as a computer display or set of paints.

This system is still popular among contemporary painters, as it is basically a simplified version of Newton's geometrical rule that colors closer together on the hue circle will produce more vibrant mixtures. However, with the range of contemporary paints available, many artists simply add more paints to their palette as desired for a variety of practical reasons. For example, they may add a scarlet, purple and/or green paint to expand the mixable gamut; and they include one or more dark colors (especially "earth" colors such as yellow ochre or burnt sienna) simply because they are convenient to have premixed.

The monochromatic formula chooses only one color (or hue). Variations of the color are created by changing the value and saturation of the color. Since only one hue is used, the color and its variations are guaranteed to work.

Self Promotion Getting the Word Out

January 31st, 2019

Self Promotion  Getting the Word Out

If you create and display your art in the woods, does anyone see it? The answer is no. Not without a little word of mouth.
Before you start thinking “Promote my work? No thanks, I’m allergic,” stay with me.

You don’t have to fly an airplane banner in the sky or shout from the rooftops with a megaphone to get the word out.

We recommend simple, authentic ways to champion your designs and turn your FAA shop into a well-oiled machine.

Keep personal and artist profiles separate on social
Life imitates art in more ways than one. This entanglement is a beautiful thing. But it’s a good idea not to mix the two when getting the word out about your shop. Like a classic mullet, it should be art in the front, personal in the back.

For example, a Facebook profile peppered with selfies, cats, and pictures of your food makes it difficult for fans to find, admire and purchase your work.

Put the art you upload to your FAA shop front and center.

Define what your art means with a mission statement
You don’t have to reveal all the ingredients in the secret sauce for people to appreciate the flavor. The same goes for your mission statement.

What gets you up in the morning and keeps you up at night? Why do you create art and for whom do you do it? In one or two sentences tell your fans how you and your art interact with the world.

Engage with supporters. It shows interest
There are many ways to connect with people that invest in your art. Show appreciation authentically through FAA mail, on social media and comments, and even in person. These little interactions can help build your artist-buyer relationships and lead to continued interest in your work.

Share works in progress with your followers
An amuse-bouche prepares the guest for the meal and offers a glimpse into the chef’s approach to the art of cuisine.

Prime your fans’ appetites with a sample of your current project. Yes, before it’s fully baked. Your work in progress offers a peek into your creative process.

It’s also a great reminder, as an artist, that the journey is as just as significant as the destination.

Let followers and fans into your workspace
Whether your workspace resembles Dr. Frankenstein’s dank dungeon, a minimalist setup, or the Parrish mansion at the end of Jumanji, fans love to see where the magic happens.

When you invite people to see your humble, explosive, inspiring workspace, you share the reality of art making.

Try snapping a few photos or even a quick video of your space. The gesture could go a long way.

Use analytics to see who is looking at your work
Left Brain, do you read me? Left Brain. Do. You. Copy?

Analytics may seem scary and complicated like Morse Code or astrophysics, but its uses are invaluable. See your most popular content, best times to post, and sources for how your fanbase found you.

Pantone Color of the Year

January 31st, 2019

Pantone Color of the Year

Every year designers and artists alike look forward to Pantone’s Color of the Year. The color chosen each year, resonates with trends past and present, with the temperature of our current society, and represents the universal language of color. Colors play an important role in not only in an artist’s life but in our daily lives. We use color to communicate mood, evoke emotion, and express style. Using a color that connects with your viewer may be the difference between a consumer falling in love with your art or walking away from it.

The 2019 Color of the Year is PANTONE 16-1546 Living Coral

“Vibrant, yet mellow PANTONE 16-1546 Living Coral embraces us with warmth and nourishment to provide comfort and buoyancy in our continually shifting environment.

In reaction to the onslaught of digital technology and social media increasingly embedding into daily life, we are seeking authentic and immersive experiences that enable connection and intimacy. Sociable and spirited, the engaging nature of PANTONE 16-1546 Living Coral welcomes and encourages lighthearted activity.

Symbolizing our innate need for optimism and joyful pursuits, PANTONE 16-1546 Living Coral embodies our desire for playful expression.

Representing the fusion of modern life, PANTONE Living Coral is a nurturing color that appears in our natural surroundings and at the same time, displays a lively presence within social media.”

Color values: RGB 250 114 104 | HEX/HTML FA7268 | CMYK values not available

Few must-know painting techniques for artists

January 29th, 2019

01. Underpainting
I never work from white when using oils or acrylics. Create an underpainting in burnt umber or a mix of burnt sienna and phthalo blues to establish shadows and values. Acrylics are probably the best medium to use at this stage as they're quick-drying and permanent.
Work paint up from thin to thick, especially when using slow-drying paints. It's impossible to work on top of heavy, wet paint. In the same way, work up to highlights, adding the brightest (and usually heavier) paint at the end. Have a roll of kitchen towel to hand to clean brushes and remove any excess paint.

02. Blocking in
Brushes come in a number of shapes and with different fibre types, all of which give very different results. The key is to try all of them as you paint. The most versatile are a synthetic/sable mix – these brushes can be used with most of the different paint types. Brushes come in flat and round types and it pays to have a selection of both. Check out our guide to picking the right brush to learn more.

I work with a range of brushes. For most of the early work I use larger, flatter and broader brushes. A filbert is a good general brush for blocking in form and paint. It has a dual nature, combining aspects of flat and round brushes so it can cover detail as well as larger areas. I tend to use smaller brushes only at the end of the painting process.

03. Building up texture
Have a dry, flat brush that you can use to blend your paint and create smooth transitions. I tend to like lots of texture and like to see brush marks in my own work. Almost anything can be used to add texture to your paint. There are ready made texture media available, but I have seen items such as egg shell and sand used to add interest to a painting.

One tip is to use an old toothbrush to spatter your image with paint. This can be remarkably effective at suggesting noise and grain.

04. Dry brushing
This is a method of applying colour that only partially covers a previously dried layer of paint. Add very little paint to your brush and apply it with very quick, directional strokes.

This method tends to work best when applying light paint over dark areas/dried paint and is useful for depicting rock and grass textures.

05. Sgraffito
Removing paint can be as important as applying it. Sgraffito is the term used when you scratch away paint while it's wet to expose the underpainting. It's especially useful when depicting scratches, hair, grasses and the like.

You can use almost any pointed object for this – try rubber shaping tools or the end of a brush.

06. Glazing
Glazing is the process of laying a coat of transparent paint over a dry part of the painting, and it's used for intensifying shadows and modulating colour. A light transparent blue over dry yellow will, of course, create green.

07. Painting with mediums
Mediums are fluids that can be added to paint to modulate its consistency, drying time and texture. In the case of acrylics, you get different mediums that make the paint matte or gloss. However, I tend to use the matte medium mainly to seal my paper or board, so paint doesn't soak into it.

Contemporary Art

January 20th, 2019

What is Contemporary Art?

Strictly speaking, the term "contemporary art" refers to art made and produced by artists living today. Today's artists work in and respond to a global environment that is culturally diverse, technologically advancing, and multifaceted.

What are the themes of contemporary art?

Working in a wide range of mediums, contemporary artists often reflect and comment on modern-day society. When engaging with contemporary art, viewers are challenged to set aside questions such as, "Is a work of art good?" or "Is the work aesthetically pleasing?" Instead, viewers consider whether art is "challenging" or "interesting." Contemporary artists may question traditional ideas of how art is defined, what constitutes art, and how art is made, while creating a dialogue with—and in some cases rejecting—the styles and movements that came before them.

Contemporary Art And Its Tendency For Abstraction

Since the early 20th century, some artists have turned away from realistic representation and the depiction of the human figure, and have moved increasingly towards abstraction. In New York City after World War II, the art world coined the term "abstract expressionism" to characterize an art movement that was neither completely abstract, nor expressionistic. Nevertheless, the movement challenged artists to place more emphasis on the process of making art rather than the final product. Artists like Jackson Pollock brought art-making to choreographic heights by dripping paint in grand yet spontaneous gestures. As one critic noted, the canvas was an arena in which to act—"what was going on in the canvas was not a picture but an event." This notion of art as an event emerged out of the movement called abstract expressionism, which greatly influenced the art movements that followed, and continues to inspire artists living today.

Contemporary Art and Artistic Minimalism

Contemporary artists working within the postmodern movement reject the concept of mainstream art and embrace the notion of "artistic pluralism," the acceptance of a variety of artistic intentions and styles. Whether influenced by or grounded in performance art, pop art, Minimalism, conceptual art, or video, contemporary artists pull from an infinite variety of materials, sources, and styles to create art.

Gull G and Contemporary Art

GullG and its panel of incredibly talented artists work hard to bring forth the best of contemporary art in multiple mediums, styles, strokes and hues.
Visit our website today to check out our artworks.

Tango Dance

January 20th, 2019

Tango is a popular partner dance and social dance that originated in the 1880s along the River Plate (Río de Plata), the natural border between Argentina and Uruguay. It was born in the impoverished port areas of these countries, where natives mixed with slave and European immigrant populations.[2] The tango is the result of a combination of the German Waltz, Czech Polka, Polish Mazurka, and Bohemian Schottische with the Spanish-Cuban Habanera, African Candombe, and Argentinian Milonga.[3] The tango was frequently practiced in the brothels and bars of ports, where business owners employed bands to entertain their patrons with music.[4] The tango then spread to the rest of the world.[5] Many variations of this dance currently exist around the world.

Native Americans in the United States

January 20th, 2019

Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations. The term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans (as defined by the US Census) are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander".

The ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago, possibly much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples, societies and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were greatly affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, and their population declined precipitously mainly due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery. After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare, removals and one-sided treaties, and they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations.

When the United States was created, established Native American tribes were generally considered semi-independent nations, as they generally lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, and started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law. This law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty. For this reason, many (but not all) Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law.

The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U.S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States who had not yet obtained it. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, and extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968.

Ballet dancer

January 20th, 2019

"Ballerina" redirects here. For other uses, see Ballerina (disambiguation).
"Coryphee" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Coryphaeus.

Pierina Legnani (left) and Olga Preobrajenskaya (right) costumed as Medora and Gulnare, respectively, for the scene "Le jardin animé" from Marius Petipa's final revival of Le Corsaire for the Imperial Ballet. St Petersburg, 1899. Legnani was the first ballerina ever to be officially titled as Prima ballerina assoluta, the highest rank for women.
A ballet dancer (Italian: ballerina [balleˈriːna] fem., ballerino [balleˈriːno] masc.) is a person who practices the art of classical ballet. Both females and males can practice ballet; however, dancers have a strict hierarchy and strict gender roles. They rely on years of extensive training and proper technique to become a part of professional companies. Ballet dancers are at high risk of injury due to the demanding technique of ballet.[1]

Architecture of New York City

January 20th, 2019

Architecture of New York City

The building form most closely associated with New York City is the skyscraper, which has shifted many commercial and residential districts from low-rise to high-rise. Surrounded mostly by water, the city has amassed one of the largest and most varied collections of skyscrapers in the world.[1]

New York has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles spanning distinct historical and cultural periods. These include the Woolworth Building (1913), an early Gothic revival skyscraper with large-scale gothic architectural detail. The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setback in new buildings, and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below.[2] The Art Deco design of the Chrysler Building (1930) and Empire State Building (1931), with their tapered tops and steel spires, reflected the zoning requirements. The Chrysler building is considered by many historians and architects to be one of New York's finest, with its distinctive ornamentation such as V-shaped lighting inserts capped by a steel spire at the tower's crown.[3] An early influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), distinctive for its facade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building's structure. The Condé Nast Building (2000) is an important example of green design in American skyscrapers.[4]

The character of New York's large residential districts is often defined by the elegant brownstone rowhouses, townhouses, and tenements that were built during a period of rapid expansion from 1870 to 1930.[5] In contrast, New York City also has neighborhoods that are less densely populated and feature free-standing dwellings. In the outer boroughs, large single-family homes are common in various architectural styles such as Tudor Revival and Victorian.[6][7][8] Split two-family homes are also widely available across the outer boroughs, for example in the Flushing area.

Stone and brick became the city's building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835.[9][10] Unlike Paris, which for centuries was built from its own limestone bedrock, New York has always drawn its building stone from a far-flung network of quarries and its stone buildings have a variety of textures and hues.[11] A distinctive feature of many of the city's buildings is the presence of wooden roof-mounted water towers. In the 19th century, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could burst municipal water pipes.[12] Garden apartments became popular during the 1920s in outlying areas, including Jackson Heights in Queens, which became more accessible with expansion of the subway.[13]

An Overview of Native American History

May 25th, 2018

An Overview of Native American History

A Brief Historical Background of American Indians or Native Americans

Many thousands of years past, late within the geological period, humans journeyed across the Vitus Bering land bridge, from Asia into Alaska. Their descendants explored on the geographic area of North America. As early as a thousand before Christ, they'd lined nearly the whole continent. It’s not renowned once the primary individuals arrived within the Americas. Some archaeologists (scientists WHO study the remains of past human lives) believe it'd are concerning 12000 before Christ.

Over thousands of years, American Indians have developed a good vary of languages, customs, and civilizations. There are as many various social group nations within the Americas as there are nations in Europe, Asia, or Africa, and there's the maximum amount selection among them.

Ten thousand years past, once the glacial period complete, changes in climate and increasing populations impressed some Native Americans tribes to experiment with growing completely different crops. Some became extremely good farmers. As early as concerning 5500 B.C., tribes in United Mexican States cultivated corn and squash. They raised turkeys, llamas, and guinea pigs for food and that they hunted deer and bison. They frequently burned off patches of land to stay it in pasture, therefore the animals would return to graze. Several tribes on the coasts hunted ocean mammals from boats and caught fish, employing a form of economical strategies.

After 2000 before Christ, some Native Americans developed states, every governing thousands of individuals. They established intensive trade routes across the continents. And that they used wares rafts and alternative boats to ship their product from one commerce purpose to a different. In South America, llamas provided transportation toward land.

From the current region of the mid-western U. S. to southern Republic of Peru in South America, centers of presidency were marked by huge mounds of earth. Most of those mounds were flat on prime, with palaces and temples engineered on them. Some were interment sites of honored leaders. Yank Indian cities were as massive because the cities in Europe and Asia at that point. Their fine design remains greatly loved.

European invasions of land began with Columbus's voyages to the "New World" in 1492. The Europeans brought diseases with them, as well as pox and rubeola. These unknown diseases unfold quickly among Native Americans. They were worn out the populations of the many native cities.

The Europeans started colonizing solid ground so as to cultivate new farmlands and build new jobs for the growing populations of Europe. To do so, they typically fought Native Americans social group nations for the land. Many factors gave the Europeans the advantage in these conflicts. First, they'd some immunities to their own diseases. Therefore they weren't as ruined by them as Native Americans were. Second, the Europeans had horses and guns that overcome the Native Americans' hand weapons and arrows in battle. Third, European settlements within the Americas grew at such a rate that the Europeans' descendants eventually outnumbered the native individuals

Native Americans social group nations resisted colonization, however eventually; several were forced to surrender their lands. Within the regions of contemporary southern North American nation, the U. S., and southern South America, survivors were gathered up and involuntarily emotional to specific areas, referred to as reservations. In Mexico, Central America, and northern South America, the native individuals were forced to measure as peasants and laborers, below Spanish rule. In the previous couple of decades, developments in transportation and earth-moving machinery have created it profitable for outsiders to colonize the tropical lowland forests. Currently the approach of life for those social group nations, too, is vulnerable.

Today Native Americans populations across each continents area unit another time on the increase. Native American leader’s area unit achieving larger political success in fighting for the rights of their peoples. Additionally, recent widespread concern over human rights has prompted government’s et al to respect Native yank cultures and traditions once responding to their wants.


Displaying: 1 - 10 of 11


Show All



2 Next